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Historical and cartographic confirmation of the Crimean ties with Ukraine

The maps show results of archaeological studies with indication that since the Bronze and Early Iron Age (IV-I millenniums BC) the Crimea and South Ukraine belonged to areas of the same archaeological cultures. Their bearers were representatives of the ancient tribes - speakers of languages of the Iranian group. Among them from written sources there were known Cimmerians and Scythians.

 

In the year 965 Prince Svyatoslav of Kyev organized a campaign against the Khazars, has defeated Alans and Kasogs living in Kuban, and has reached the Kerch Strait. The fact that the region was annexed to the Kyivan Rus was supported by annalistic chronicles on how the Prince Volodymyr Svyatoslavych handed the town of Tmutarakan (modern Taman) over to his son Mstislav (988). Later (1024) Mstislav became also a Chernigov Prince. After the death of Mstislav the Tmutarakan princedom passed to his brother the Kyiv Prince Yaroslav the Wise (1036). Yaroslav's son Svyatoslav, who inherited from his father the town of Chernigiv, in 1064 also received Tmutarakan. From then until the beginning of XII century the Kerch Strait was owned mostly by representatives of the Chernigiv princely house.

The Crimean Khanate, which was formed in the XV century, covered, besides the Crimea, big spaces of the steppe Ukraine. During the XVI - XVII centuries the Crimean Tatars attacked mainland of Ukraine and brought in to the Crimea more than 1000000 captives who became slaves. Thus, Ukrainians were a significant part of the population of the Crimea of those times.

 

The centuries-old enemies and close neighbors - the Crimean Tatars and Cossacks often found a common language, when their interests coincided. Cossacks indulged Tatars in their attempts to get free from the Turkish ward. Tatars sometimes helped Cossacks in their actions against the Polish king. The Bakhchisarai Treaty on mutual military assistance between Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Crimean Khan İslâm Geray III (March 1648) has become a prerequisite of the Cossack victories over the Polish army and creation of the Ukrainian Cossack state.
 

After the military defeat of the Ottoman Empire according to the Küçük Kaynarca peace treaty, Russia received mouth of Dnieper and the Kerch Strait (July 21, 1774). The Zaporizhian Sich and the Crimean Khanate simultaneously have found themselves exposed to a threat of absorption by the Russian empire. The next year (June 4, 1775) by order of Catherine II the Zaporizhian Sich was eliminated, and on April 8, 1783 the same fate overtook the Crimean Khanate.
 
 
 
From annexation of the Crimea in 1783 and up to 1917 the peninsula together with a part of South Ukraine formed a separate administrative unit: the Taurida region (1783 - 1796), New Russia province (1796 - 1802) and the Taurida province (1802 - 1917).
 
The first all-Russian population census (1897) has estimated the population of the Taurida province as 1.45 million. The Ukrainian share was 42 %, Russians - 28%. Crimean Tatars - 14%. In the Crimea, then lived 547 thousand people. Among them 12% Ukrainians, 33% Russians , 36% Crimean Tatars. The largest number of Ukrainians was in the Perekop (22%) and Yevpatoriya uyezds (21%, here the number of Ukrainians exceeded that of Russians).
 
 
 
At formation of the territory of the Ukrainian People's Republic the Crimea remained out of its borders, but in April 1918 the Crimean group of the UPR Army led by Colonel P. Bolbochan dislodged the Bolsheviks from the peninsula and received Simferopol and Bakhchisarai. The Black Sea Fleet raised the Ukrainian colors (May 1, 1918). However, under pressure of the German headquarters the Ukrainian troops have left the Crimea. In October 1918 between Ukraine and the Crimea there was concluded an agreement according to which the Crimea became a part of Ukraine and got an internal autonomy: parliament, local military units and administration. The downfall of Hetman Skoropadsky (December 1918) has put an end to plans for unification of the Crimea and Ukraine.
 
 
 
On October 18, 1921 with formation of the Crimean Autonomous Republic the peninsula was administratively separated from the mainland of Ukraine and incorporated into the Russian SFSR . According to the census in 1926 in the Crimea there lived 714 thousand people: 42 % Russians, 25 % Crimean Tatars, 11% Ukrainians. The most notable Ukrainian share was in Kerch (20%), Yevpatoria (18%) and Dzhankoy (18%) uyezds.
 
In 1945, after deportation of the Crimean Tatars the Crimean autonomy was eliminated and the peninsula was converted into an ordinary region of the Russian Federation. On February 19, 1954 by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR the Crimea region of the RSFSR passed to the Ukrainian SSR. For water supply and economic recovery of the Crimea in 1955 – 1958 there was built the Kakhovka reservoir with the North Crimean Canal (the Kakhovka - Krasnoperekopsk part was completed in 1961, Krasnoperekopsk - Djankoy in 1965, Djankoy – Kerch in 1971) .