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Реєстрація
Standardization of geographical names

 

Geographical names (synonym: toponyms) represent ancient human-created landmarks and an important part of every people’s national conscience. Geographical names were created because people had to name geographical objects as civilization developed. Therefore, these names reflect the world perception, historical past, natural features of particular landscape, development of culture, ideology, politics, and other factors. Within the historical aspect, Ukrainian toponymy was influenced by ancient Scythians, the Mongol invasion, incorporation of Ukrainian lands in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire; the effect of the Soviet system also turned out to be substantial.
Geographical names are part of any map.
Placement of geographical names on maps is regulated by the Law of Ukraine On Geographical Names of 31 May 2005 which provides legal framework for the use of geographical names, in particular: establishment of names for geographical objects; standardization, filing, registration, use, and preservation of geographical names.
The maps display standardized geographical names, both own (Ukrainian) and geographical names of other peoples in the Ukrainian language. Standardization of geographical names of Ukraine means establishment of the uniform spelling of geographical names according to the norms and rules of Ukrainian orthography. Standardized names of places outside Ukraine mean geographical names of foreign countries transliterated according to the instructions and codes of established practice of transliterating geographical names of foreign countries from respective languages, taking into account recommendations of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (maximum possible preservation of a name’s original phonetic pronunciation).
Instructions on transliteration of geographical names of foreign countries in the Ukrainian language
Geographical names of foreign countries shown in atlases and on maps, in reference books, guidebooks, and other publications are transliterated in the Ukrainian language according to the instructions on transliteration of geographical names of foreign countries from respective languages. SSPE “Kartographia” has developed 28 instructions approved by the State Administration for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre. These are the instructions on transliteration from English, German, Spanish, Italian, and French languages; instructions on transliteration of geographical names of Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and Moldova, Lithuania, Sweden, Hungary, Belarus, Russian Federation, former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Turkey, Portugal, Greece, and 6 codes of established practice on the rules of the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Estonia, Belgium, the Netherlands, Albania, Slovenia, and FYR Macedonia.
To generalize all these instructions and codes, SSPE “Kartographia” has developed the Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors.
The Toponymic Guidelines has collected and generalized the main principles and rules of standardization and spelling of Ukrainian geographical names in the Ukrainian language and in the Ukrainian Latin alphabet (Latynka) on maps, in gazetteers, dictionaries, reference books, textbooks and other materials according to the norms and rules of Ukrainian orthography.
The Toponymic Guidelines is intended for map editors and publishers and other users working with geographical names (geographers, cartographers, topographers, local lore researchers, etc.).
 Instructions:
1. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of English-language geographical names and terms. 2001
2. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Belarus. 2001
3. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Bulgaria. 2001
4. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of Spanish-language geographical names and terms. 2001
5. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of France. 2001
6. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Poland. 2001
7. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of German-language geographical names and terms. 2001
8. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of Hungarian-language geographical names and terms. 2001
9. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of Russian-language geographical names and terms. 2001
10. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Sweden. 2001
11. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Italy. 2001
12. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Slovakia. 2001
13. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 2001
14. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Romania and Moldova. 2001
15. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Lithuania. 2001
16. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of the Czech Republic. 2001
17. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Norway. 2006
18. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Denmark. 2006
19. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Finland. 2006
20. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Greece. 2007
21. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Turkey. 2007
22. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Portugal. 2007
23. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Estonia. 2009
24. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Belgium. 2009
25. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of the Netherlands. 2009
26. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of FYR Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). 2010
27. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Slovenia. 2010
28. Instruction on the Ukrainian transliteration of geographical names and terms of Albania. 2010
29. Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors. 2010
30. Toponymic Guidelines. For map and other editors. 2011

List of geographical names:
• World
• Europe
• Asia
• Africa, Australia and Oceania